Sunday, September 30, 2007

For the French museum, see the Louvre
A louver (or louvre in British English, from French l'ouvert; "the open one") is a frame with horizontal and vertical slats, which are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and sun shine (or noise, in some cases). As building management services has improved and technology has quickly changed, these louvers have been automated to save on overall cost while providing a pleasant living environment inside buildings.
Louvers originated in the Middle Ages as lantern-like constructions that were fitted on top of roof holes in large kitchens to serve as ventilation while keeping out rain and snow. They were originally rather crude constructions consisting merely of a barrel. Later they evolved into more elaborate designs made of pottery, taking the shape of faces where the smoke and steam from cooking would pour out through the eyes and mouth, or into constructions that were more like modern louvers, with slats that could be opened or closed by pulling on a string.

Saturday, September 29, 2007

Matt Dennis (February 11, 1914June 21, 2002) was a singer, pianist, bandleader, arranger, and writer of music for popular music songs.
He was born in Seattle, Washington. His mother was a violinist and his father a singer, and the family was in vaudeville, so he was early exposed to music. In 1933 he joined Horace Heidt's orchestra as a vocalist and pianist. Later on, he formed his own band, with Dick Haymes as vocalist. He became vocal coach, arranger, and accompanist for Martha Tilton, and worked with a new vocal group, the Stafford Sisters. Jo Stafford, one of the sisters, joined the Tommy Dorsey band in 1940 and persuaded Dorsey to hire Dennis as arranger and composer. Dennis wrote prolifically, with fourteen of his songs recorded by the Dorsey band in one year alone, including "Everything Happens to Me," an early hit for Frank Sinatra.
After three and a half years in the United States Air Force in World War II, Dennis returned to music writing and arranging, getting a boost from his old friend Dick Haymes, who hired him to be the music director for his radio program. With lyricist Tom Adair he wrote songs for Haymes' program.
Dennis recorded six very fine albums most of which are out of print.

Matt Dennis Songs with music by Matt Dennis

"Angel Eyes"
"Everything Happens to Me"
"Let's Get Away from It All"
"The Night We Called It a Day"
"Violets For Your Furs"
"Will You Still Be Mine"
"Compared To You"

Friday, September 28, 2007

Reinhold lays greater emphasis than Kant upon the unity and activity of consciousness. The principle of consciousness tells us that every idea is related both to an object and a subject, and is partly to be distinguished from and partly united to both. Since form cannot produce matter and a subject cannot produce an object, we are forced to assume a thing-in-itself. This is a notion which is self-contradictory if consciousness were to be essentially a relating activity. There is therefore something which must be thought and yet cannot be thought (Høffding, History of Modern Philosophy, Eng. trans., vol. ii.). See

Robert Keil, Wieland und Reinhold (2nd ed., Leipzig, 1890)
J. E. Erdmann, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie (Berlin, 1866)
histories of philosophy by Richard Falckenberg and Wilhelm Windelband. Karl Leonhard ReinholdKarl Leonhard Reinhold Letters on the Kantian Philosophy
Kant's critical philosophy was not being accepted as the final truth. According to Professor George di Giovanni, of McGill University, Reinhold tried to provide a foundation for Kant's philosophy in order to remedy this situation. Reinhold distinguished two levels of philosophy. The most basic level was the concern with consciousness and the representations that occurred in it. The second, less basic, level, was the concern with the possibility and structure of the known or desired objects.
Kant's important realization was that the possibility of metaphysics can be established. This can be done only by describing what occurs when the mind is conscious of objects. Kant's weakness was in being overly concerned with the objects themselves. He remained at the second, less basic, level of philosophy. He rarely examined what occurred in consciousness, which is the basic level of philosophy. Kant did not provide a phenomenological description of consciousness. Reinhold was convinced that Kant should have identified the fundamental fact of consciousness that was essential in making cognition itself possible.
Reinhold's Essay towards a New Theory of the Human Faculty of Representation is a description of the main parts and attributes of consciousness. In writing this book, Reinhold turned his attention from the moral issues that Kant addressed in the end section of his Critique of Pure Reason to the epistemological concerns of the beginning and middle sections.
Reinhold examined the necessary conditions of representation, such as subject and object, that must exist in order for an object to be consciously present.

General Theory of Representation

  • The thing-in-itself necessarily exists, but cannot be known.
    Human knowledge is restricted to appearances only.
    Principle of Consciousness - The thinking subject distinguishes in consciousness the representation from the subject and the object.

    • This is a certain fact of consciousness.
      The subject is the location of the representation.
      The object is anything that is represented as being present to the subject.
      Representation's Material and Form

      • The representation's material ('Stoff') is a given or received manifold of sensation which is unified when it is attributed to a transcendental object. It allows the thinking subject to distinguish a thing-in-itself.
        The representation's form is a spontaneous unifying act which occurs according to the subject's conditions. It allows the thinking subject to distinguish a self-in-itself.
        The self-in-itself and the thing-in-itself must be assumed in order for the thinking subject to be able to make a distinction between consciousness itself and the object of consciousness.
        We can never know anything in itself, that is, as not representation. An object-in-Itself or subject-in-itself does not have matter (sensation) or representational form, so they cannot be known. Only that which is represented can be known
        Consciousness must contain representation.

        • An empirical representation takes its material from a source that is supposed to be external to it.
          A pure representation takes its material by reflecting on consciousness
          A clear and distinct consciousness of an object is an awareness that consciousness itself is a representation in a subject of an external object.
          Special Theory of Cognition

          • Cognition is clear, distinct knowledge that consciousness contains a representation of an object.

            • Cognition is consciousness's awareness that its own content is a subject's representation of an object.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

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In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the "church" is — ie., its role in salvation, its origin, its relationship to the historical Christ, its discipline, its destiny (see Eschatology) and its leadership. It is, therefore, the study of the Church as a thing in itself, and of the Church's self-understanding of its mission and role.
In addition to describing a broad discipline of theology, ecclesiology may be used in the specific sense of a particular church or denomination's character, self-described or otherwise. This is the sense of the word in such phrases as Roman Catholic ecclesiology, Lutheran ecclesiology, and ecumenical ecclesiology.

Ecclesiology asks the questions:

Who is the Church? Is it a visible or earthly corporation -- a "church" in the sense of a specific denomination or institution, for instance? Or is it the body of all believing Christians regardless of their denominational differences and disunity? What is the relationship between living Christians and departed Christians (the "cloud of witnesses") -- do they (those on Earth and those in Heaven) constitute together the Church?
Must one join a church? That is, what is the role of corporate worship in the spiritual lives of believers? Is it in fact necessary? Can salvation be found outside of formal membership in a given faith community, and what constitutes "membership?" (Baptism? Formal acceptance of a creed? Regular participation?)
What is the authority of the Christian church? Who gets to interpret the doctrines of the Church? Is the organizational structure itself, either in a single corporate body, or generally within the range of formal church structures, an independent vehicle of revelation or of God's grace? Or is the Church's authority instead dependent on and derivative of a separate and prior divine revelation external to the organization, with individual institutions being "the Church" only to the extent that they teach this message? For example, is the Bible a written part of a wider revelation entrusted to the Church as faith community, and therefore to be interpreted within that context? Or is the Bible the revelation itself, and the Church is to be defined as a group of people claim adherence to it?
What does the Church do? What are the sacraments, divine ordinances, and liturgies, in the context of the Church, and are they part of the Church's mission to preach the Gospel? What is the comparative emphasis and relationship between worship service, spiritual formation, and mission, and is the Church's role to create disciples of Christ or some other function? Is the Eucharist the defining element of the rest of the sacramental system and the Church itself, or is it secondary to the act of preaching? Is the Church to be understood as the vehicle for salvation, or the salvific presence in the world, or as a community of those already "saved?"
How should the Church be governed? What was the mission and authority of the Apostles, and is this handed down through the sacraments today? What are the proper methods of choosing clergy such as bishops and priests, and what is their role within the context of the Church? Is an ordained clergy necessary? * Who are the leaders of a church? Must there be a policy-making board of "leaders" within a church and what are the qualifications for this position, and by what process do these members become official, ordained "leaders"? Must leaders and clergy be "ordained," and is this possible only by those who have been ordained by others?
What are the roles of 'spiritual gifts' in the life of the church?
How does the Church's New Covenant relate to the covenants expressed in scripture with God's chosen people, the Jewish people?
What is the ultimate destiny of the Church in Christian eschatology? Issues addressed by ecclesiology

Rituals that define the Church

Apostolic succession
Canon Law
One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church
Separation of church and state

  • Erastinanism
    Established Church
    Free Church
    Full communion
    Ecclesia (sociology of religion)
    Ecclesiastical polity

    • Connectionalism
      Congregational polity
      Episcopal polity
      Presbyterian church governance

      • Pope
        Priesthood of all believers

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Brittany Snow Biography
Snow was born in Tampa, Florida to Cinda, who works for Prentice Hall, and John Snow, who worked in insurance and now organizes Snow's schedule. She is also a close personal friend of High School Musical's Ashley Tisdale.

Personal life
Snow began modeling at the age of three in a print ad for Burdines. She had a popular role at age twelve as troubled teen Susan LeMay on the soap opera Guiding Light from 1998 to 2001. She is perhaps best known for playing Meg Pryor on NBC's American Dreams and Ariel, a neo-Nazi high school student on the third season of Nip/Tuck. In 2005, Snow appeared in The Pacifier with action star Vin Diesel. In 2006, Snow was in the film John Tucker Must Die and voiced Naminé in the video game Kingdom Hearts II as well as Shizuku in the Hayao Miyazaki film, "Whisper of the Heart". Snow most recently appeared in Hairspray, a film adaptation of the Broadway musical, playing the bratty Corny Collins show queen Amber von Tussle alongside James Marsden. With her role in Hairspray, Snow shows a singing side of her in numerous numbers including a solo entitled, "The New Girl In Town", a song previously cut from the Broadway musical version. She will soon be seen in the horror film "Prom Night", a remake of the hit horror film of the same name, starring Jamie Lee Curtis. Snow will be playing the lead role, who is traumatized (along with her friends) by a deranged killer on her school's prom night.

Brittany Snow Career


From the Earth to the Moon (1998)
Guiding Light (1998-2001) Susan LeMay #2
Murphy's Dozen (2001)
American Dreams (2002-2005) Meg Pryor
Punk'd (2005) see above
Nip/Tuck (2005) - Ariel Alderman (5 episodes)
Law & Order: Special Victims Unit (2006) - "Influence" Jamie Hoskins Television

Kingdom Hearts II (2006) (Video game) - Naminé
"My Girl, My Boo"- Nu Ground (2000) (Music Video) - Love Interest
"The Phrase That Pays"- The Academy Is... (2006) (Music Video) - Nurse Other


Tuesday, September 25, 2007

Flag of the United Kingdom Flag of Armenia
Estimated between 40,00-100,000.

British Armenians List of famous British-Armenians

Levon Chilingirian OBE, musician
Professor Sir Ara Darzi KBE, surgeon
David Dickinson, antiques expert and Television presenter
Calouste Gulbenkian, one of the founders of Royal Dutch Shell and oil magnate
Natasha Shishmanian, Golf professional, journalist, writer and fiancée of Chris Evans
Ghassan Karian, Mayor of London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham
Roland Manookian, actor, major role in the Football Factory by Nick Love
Bob Manoukian, businessman
Alexander Raphael, first person of Armenian descent to become a member of the House of Commons
Aram Shishmanian, non-executive director of Resolution plc and board member of Britannic Group
Hag Simonian, correspondent of Financial Times
Dikran Tahta, mathematician and teacher
Paul Kassabian- Deputy project manager of Gateshead Millennium Bridge at Watson Steel Plc
Anahid Kassabian- Professor of music at University of Liverpool
Ervant Abrahamian- former professor of Middle East history at Oxford University
Bernard Andonian- Immigration Judge, one of the top immigration lawyers
Paul Gulbenkian- Immigration Judge, one of the top lawyers
Barbara Sahakian- Professor of psychology at Cambridge University

Monday, September 24, 2007

The Imperial units or the Imperial system is a collection of units, first defined in the Weights and Measures Act of 1824, later refined (until 1959) and reduced. The units were introduced in the United Kingdom and its colonies, including Commonwealth countries (though most Commonwealth countries are officially metric), but excluding the then already independent United States. Systems of Imperial units are sometimes referred to as foot-pound-second, after the base units of length, mass and time.

Relation to other systems
After the 1 July 1959 deadline, agreed upon in 1958, the U.S. and the British yard were defined identically (0.9144 m) to the international yard. Metric equivalents in this article usually assume this latest official definition. Before this date, the most precise measurement of the Imperial Standard Yard was 0.914398416 m (Sears et al. 1928. Phil Trans A 227:281).
Until the adoption of the international definition of 1852 metres in 1970, the British nautical mile was defined as 6080 feet. It was not readily expressible in terms of any of the intermediate units, because it was derived from the circumference of the Earth (like the original metre).

Measures of length

Measures of area
In 1824, Britain adopted a close approximation to the ale gallon known as the Imperial gallon. The Imperial gallon was based on the volume of 10 lb of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights with the barometer standing at 30 inHg and at a temperature of 62 °F. In 1963, this definition was refined as the space occupied by 10 lb of distilled water of density 0.998 859 g/ml weighed in air of density 0.001 217 g/ml against weights of density 8.136 g/ml. This works out to exactly 4.545 964 591 L, or 277.420 cu in. The Weights and Measures Act of 1985 finally switched to a gallon of exactly 4.546 09 L (approximately 277.4 cu in) .
For a comparison to the U.S. customary system see the article on Comparison of the Imperial and U.S. customary systems.

Imperial units Measures of volume
Britain has made some use of three different weight systems in the 19th and 20th century, troy weight, used for precious metals, avoirdupois weight, used for most other purposes, and apothecaries' weight, now virtually unused since the metric system is used for all scientific purposes. The 1824 Act made the Troy pound the primary unit of weight.
The use of the troy pound (373.241 721 6 g) was abolished in Britain on January 6, 1879, making the Avoirdupois pound the primary unit of weight.with only the troy ounce (31.103 476 8 g) and its decimal subdivisions retained. In all the systems, the fundamental unit is the pound, and all other units are defined as fractions or multiples of it.
Note that the British ton is 2240 pounds (the long ton), which is very close to a metric tonne, whereas the ton generally used in the United States is the "short ton" of 2000 pounds (907.184 74 kg), both are 20 hundredweights.
Further information: Comparison of the Imperial and US customary systems

Measures of weight and mass
The primary user of traditional 'English' units is the United States and to a lesser degree in Burma and Liberia. In some of the U.S.-influenced Caribbean countries (like Antigua and Saint Lucia), the U.S. customary units, which are similar to Imperial units based upon older English units and in part share definitions, are still in common use. The metric system (SI) has mostly replaced traditional units in other countries.

Current use of Imperial units

Main article: Metrication in the United Kingdom

Sunday, September 23, 2007

The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer, [IPA: heɐ] listen ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr ("Federal Defence Forces") of the Federal Republic of Germany. Traditionally, the German military forces have been composed of the Army, the Navy, and after the First World War, the Air Force. The Heer was re-formed in the 1950s as the West German Army as part of the Bundeswehr. In October 1990, upon the reunification of Germany, the East German army, the National People's Army (NVA), was integrated into the now unified force.
The German word Heer means simply "army". The term is not restricted to any particular country, so "das britische Heer" would mean "the British army".

Since Germany first became a modern unified state in 1871, previous names of German unified military forces have included:

1919–1935 Reichswehr ("Empire Defence" and "Empire Defence Force") consisting of the Reichsheer (Army) and the Reichsmarine (Navy);
1935–1945 Wehrmacht ("Defence Force") consisting of the Wehrmacht Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), and Luftwaffe (Air Force);
West Germany

  • 1955–October 1990 Bundeswehr ("Federal Defence Forces") (West Germany) consisting of the Heer, Bundesmarine (Federal Navy) and Luftwaffe;
    East Germany

    • 1956–October 1990 Nationale Volksarmee ("National People's Army"), consisting of the Landstreitkräfte (Land Forces), Grenztruppen der DDR (Border Troops of the GDR), Luftstreitkräfte / Luftverteidigung (Air Forces / Air Defence) and the Volksmarine (People's Navy)
      October 1990–present Bundeswehr: Deutsches Heer, Deutsche Marine and Deutsche Luftwaffe. Overview

      Main article: German Army (German Empire) Pre-1914
      The German army that fought in World War I was not in fact a single, unitary army. The four German kingdoms that existed prior to the unification of Germany in January 1871, Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony and Württemberg, each retained their own army upon unification. Prussia had the largest army of the four. After the unification and the formation of the German Empire, the Prussian army became the nucleus of the Army of the German Empire (Deutsches Reichsheer). By 1914 the German army fielded 50 active divisions and by 1918 251 divisions had been created.

      German Army World War I 1914–1918

      Main article: ReichswehrGerman Army Reichswehr 1918–1935

      Main article: Wehrmacht Wehrmacht 1935–1945
      The Bundeswehr Heer was founded in 1955 as the army of West Germany. After 1990, it absorbed the army of socialist East Germany which was called the Landstreitkräfte (terrestrial armed forces), a part of Nationale Volksarmee.

      Current Army
      The German Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff (Inspekteur des Heeres) in the Federal Ministry of Defence in Berlin and Bonn. The major commands are the German Army Command in Koblenz and the German Army Office in Cologne.

      The German Army Command in Koblenz (Heeresführungskommando) leads all combat units (three armoured/mechanized divisions, two special divisions and one independent brigade). It is commanded by a Lieutenant General.
      (Current Structure)

      Army Command

      • HQ Company
        Franco-German Brigade

        • HQ Company Flag of FranceFlag of Germany
          3ème Régiment de Hussards Flag of France
          Light Infantry Battalion 292 Flag of Germany
          110ème Régiment d'Infanterie Flag of France
          Mixed Artillery Battalion 295 Flag of Germany
          Armoured Engineer Company 550 Flag of Germany
          Support Battalion Flag of FranceFlag of Germany
          Division Intervention Forces/ 1st Armoured Division

          • HQ Company
            Army Band 1
            Artillery Regiment 100

            • Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 131
              Rocket Artillery Battalion 132
              Engineer Regiment 1

              • Heavy Engineer Battalion 130
                Armoured Engineer Battalion 1
                Air Defence Regiment 6
                Signal Regiment 1
                Reconnaissance Battalion 3
                NBC Battalion 7
                Logistics Battalion 3
                Light NBC Company 610
                Light Air Defence Battery 610
                Mechanized Infantry Brigade 1 (To be disbanded within 2007)

                • HQ Company
                  Mechanized Infantry Battalion 421 (To be disbanded July 1st, 2007)
                  Armoured Brigade 9 (Training)

                  • HQ Company
                    Armoured Battalion 33
                    Armoured Battalion 93
                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 92
                    Armoured Artillery Battalion 325
                    Armoured Reconnaissance Company 90
                    Armoured Engineer Company 90
                    Logistics Battalion 141
                    Armoured Brigade 21

                    • HQ Company
                      Armoured Battalion 203
                      Mechanized Infantry Battalion 212
                      Armoured Artillery Battalion 215
                      Armoured Reconnaissance Company 210
                      Armoured Engineer Company 200
                      Logistics Battalion 7
                      10th Armoured Division

                      • HQ Company
                        Army Band 2
                        Mechanized Infantry Brigade 30
                        HQ Company

                        • Mechanized Infantry Battalion 294
                          Armoured Artillery Battalion 345
                          Armoured Brigade 12

                          • HQ Company
                            Armoured Battalion 104
                            Mechanized Infantry Battalion 112
                            Mechanized Infantry Battalion 122
                            Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 8
                            Engineer Battalion 4
                            Signal Battalion 4
                            Logistics Battalion 4
                            Mountain Brigade 23

                            • HQ Company
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 231
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 232
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 233
                              Mountain Reconnaissance Battalion 230
                              Mountain Engineer Battalion 8
                              Mountain Signal Battalion 210
                              Mountain Logistic Battalion 8
                              13th Mechanized Infantry Division

                              • HQ Company
                                Army Band 10
                                Reserve Engineer Bridge Battalion 270
                                Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 13
                                Mechanized Infantry Brigade 37

                                • HQ Company
                                  Armoured Battalion 303
                                  Light Infantry Battalion 371
                                  Mechanized Infantry Battalion 393
                                  Mountain Infantry Battalion 571
                                  Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 13
                                  Armoured Engineer Battalion 701
                                  Signal Battalion 701
                                  Logistics Battalion 131
                                  Mechanized Infantry Brigade 41

                                  • HQ Company
                                    Armoured Battalion 413
                                    Armoured Engineer Battalion 803
                                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 401
                                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 411
                                    Logistics Battalion 142
                                    14th Mechanized Infantry Division (To be disbanded 2008)

                                    • HQ Company
                                      Army Band 14
                                      Amoured Brigade 18

                                      • HQ Company
                                        Armoured Artillery Battalion 515
                                        Mechanized Infantry Battalion 182
                                        Signal Battalion 610
                                        Signal Battalion 801
                                        Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 6
                                        Special Operations Division

                                        • HQ Company
                                          Army Band 300
                                          Airborne Signal Battalion
                                          Long Range Reconnaissance Company 200
                                          Light Air Defence Battery 100
                                          Special Forces Command
                                          Airborne Brigade 26

                                          • HQ Company
                                            Paratrooper Battalion 261
                                            Paratrooper Battalion 263
                                            Airborne Reconnaissance Company 260
                                            Airborne Engineer Company 260
                                            Airborne Support Battalion 262
                                            Airborne Brigade 31

                                            • HQ Company
                                              Paratrooper Battalion 313
                                              Paratrooper Battalion 373
                                              Airborne Reconnaissance Company 310
                                              Airborne Engineer Company 270
                                              Airborne Support Battalion 272
                                              Airmobile Operations Division

                                              • HQ Company
                                                Army Band 12
                                                Signal Battalion
                                                Aviation Medium Transport Regiment 15
                                                Aviation Medium Transport Regiment 25
                                                Aviation Transport Regiment 30
                                                Airmobile Brigade 1

                                                • HQ Company
                                                  Aviation Reconnaissance Squadron 100
                                                  Aviation Support Squadron 1
                                                  Aviation Mechanic Squadron 1
                                                  Light Infantry Regiment 1
                                                  Attack Helicopter Regiment 26
                                                  Attack Helicopter Regiment 36
                                                  Aviation Transport Regiment 10
                                                  Aviation Brigade 3

                                                  • HQ Company
                                                    Amoured Brigade 14

                                                    • HQ Company
                                                      Signal Battalion 820
                                                      Amoured Battalion 64
                                                      Amoured Engineer Company 200
                                                      Army Troops Command

                                                      • HQ Company
                                                        Army Band 300
                                                        NBC Brigade 100

                                                        • HQ Company
                                                          NBC Regiment 750
                                                          NBC Battalion 610
                                                          NBC Battalion 805
                                                          Artillery Brigade 100

                                                          • HQ Company
                                                            Rocket Artillery Battalion 132
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 71
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 121
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 131
                                                            Field Signal Intelligence Centre of the Army
                                                            Air Defence Brigade 100

                                                            • HQ Company
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 6
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 12
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 131
                                                              Engineer Brigade 100

                                                              • HQ Company
                                                                Heavy Engineer Battalion 130
                                                                Engineer Battalion 140
                                                                Armoured Enginer Battalion 1
                                                                Light NBC Company 120
                                                                Intervention Forces Operative Guidance Command
                                                                I. German/Dutch Corps

                                                                • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                  Signal Battalion (German shares)
                                                                  HQ Support Battalion (German shares)

                                                                  • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                    Corps Support Brigade

                                                                    • Signal Battalion (German shares)
                                                                      HQ Support Battalion (German shares)
                                                                      Multinational Corps North East

                                                                      • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                        Signal Battalion (German shares) German Army Command
                                                                        The German Army Office in Cologne is responsible for the administration, education, training and logistics of the German Army. It is commanded by a lieutenant general or a major general.
                                                                        Schools, training centres and miscellaneous offices:

                                                                        Airborne Operations and Air Transport School (Luftlande- und Lufttransportschule) in Altenstadt (Schongau)
                                                                        Armoured Corps School (Panzertruppenschule) in Munster, Lower Saxony
                                                                        Army Air Defence School (Heeresflugabwehrschule) in Rendsburg
                                                                        Army Aviators School (Heeresfliegerwaffenschule) in Bückeburg
                                                                        Army Combat Simulation Centre (Gefechtssimulationszentrum des Heeres) in Wildflecken
                                                                        Army Combat Training Centre (Gefechtsübungszentrum des Heeres) in Letzlingen
                                                                        Army Logistics Centre (Logistikzentrum des Heeres) in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler
                                                                        Army NCO Academy (Unteroffizierschule des Heeres) in Münster, Delitzsch, and Weiden in der Oberpfalz
                                                                        Army Officers' School (Offizierschule des Heeres) in Dresden
                                                                        Army Tactics Centre (Taktikzentrum des Heeres) in Dresden
                                                                        Army Technical School (Technische Schule des Heeres und Fachschule des Heeres für Technik) in Aachen
                                                                        Artillery School (Artillerieschule) in Idar-Oberstein
                                                                        Infantry School (Infanterieschule) in Hammelburg
                                                                        Mountain and Winter Combat School (Gebirgs- und Winterkampfschule) in Mittenwald
                                                                        NBC Defence School (ABC- und Selbstschutzschule) in Sonthofen
                                                                        Sappers' School and Army Technical School for Structural Engineering (Pionierschule und Fachschule des Heeres für Bautechnik) in Munich
                                                                        International Special Training Center (Ausbildungszentrum Spezielle Operationen) in Pfullendorf German Army Office (Heeresamt)
                                                                        In the German Army, unlike in the armies of its neighbours (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark), there are no individual regiments. Instead, individual battalions of infantry, armour, artillery etc are given unique numbers.
                                                                        The German Army distinguishes 11 different branches of service or corps, known as Truppengattungen. Each corps is responsible for education and training of its units, mostly by its own schools or training centres.

                                                                        Units of the signal corps (Fernmeldetruppe) are responsible for communication, strategic reconnaissance and electronic warfare. Most units of the signal corps belong to the Joint Support Centre (Streitkräftebasis).

                                                                        Signal Corps
                                                                        During Army Transformation, the armoured reconnaissance corps (Panzeraufklärungstruppe) was given the new name Heeresaufklärungstruppe. The reason is that the original task of the armoured reconnaissance corps has changed. Today they need artillery drones or specialists from military intelligence units.
                                                                        The army reconnaissance corps is equipped with Fennek, Luchs, Wiesel 1, the drone reconnaissance system KZO, ALADIN and LunaX, the radar system BÜR (Bodenüberwachungradar), Fuchs and Dingo. A typical reconnaissance battalion (Aufklärungsbataillon) is structured in a HQ & support company, two or three armoured reconnaissance companies, a drone reconnaissance company and a separate military intelligence platoon.

                                                                        Army Reconnaissance Corps
                                                                        The armoured corps (Panzertruppen) are armoured units (Panzertruppe), equipped with main battle tanks, and mechanized infantry units (Panzergrenadiertruppe) equipped with IFVs.
                                                                        A typical armoured battalion (Panzerbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three tank companies (equipped with 42 MBTs). The new mechanized battalion (Panzergrenadierbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three mechanized companies (equipped with up to 40 Marder 1 A5 or Puma). Formerly there was a fifth company with mortars or/and anti-tank units.

                                                                        Armoured Corps
                                                                        Within the German Army, there are three types of infantry:
                                                                        A typical infantry battalion is structured in a HQ & support company, three light infantry companies and an indirect fire support company ("The Heavy Company"). These company consists of one anti-tank platoons (equipped with Wiesel 1, TOW), three machine gun platoons (equipped with Wiesel 1, machine gun 20 mm) and two mortar platoons (today equipped with mortar 120 mm on M113, in future on Wiesel 2). Then you find specialized Infantry Platoons like a mountain ranger platoon (Hochgebirgszug) of the mountain infantry, a pathfinder platoon (Fallschirmspezialzug) of the paratroops or K9 dog platoon (Diensthundezug) are found in the HQ & support company (Stabs- und Versorgungskompanie).

                                                                        Jäger—Light Infantry / Rangers
                                                                        Gebirgsjäger—Mountain Infantry
                                                                        Fallschirmjäger—Airborne troops Infantry
                                                                        Through Army Transformation the Special Operations Division (DSO) was formed. Soldiers of the Special Forces Command (Kommando Spezialkräfte), formerly belonging to the infantry, today have their own division.

                                                                        Special Forces
                                                                        The majority of artillery corps (Artillerietruppe) within the German Army are Panzerartillerie (armoured artillery). After Army Transformation the German Army will only have six artillery units. The German Army no longer requires the same amount of artillery for its peacekeeping missions as it did during the Cold War, so the new artillery corps is relatively smaller, however the units are larger and stronger.

                                                                        Two armoured artillery battalions (Panzerartilleriebataillon) in the two brigades of the 1st Armoured Division with a HQ & support battery and three armoured artillery batteries (equipped with 27 Panzerhaubitze 2000).
                                                                        An artillery regiment with HQ Battery in the divisional troops of the 1st Armoured Division with:

                                                                        • An artillery reconnaissance battalion (Panzerartillerieaufklärungsbataillon) with a HQ & support battery, an artillery reconnaissance battery, a drone reconnaissance battery and two armoured artillery batteries (equipped with Fennek or Marder or Puma, KZO, 2 COBRA, 1 SMA, 2 ATMAS, 18 Panzerhaubitze 2000).
                                                                          An artillery missile battalion (Raketenartilleriebataillon) with a HQ & support battery and four artillery missile batteries (equipped with 32 MLRS).
                                                                          A mixed artillery battalion (gemischtes Artilleriebataillon) of the Franco-German-Brigade with a HQ & support battery with artillery reconnaissance elements, two armoured artillery batteries and an artillery missile battery (equipped with 18 Panzerhaubitzen 2000, 10 MLRS, 1 KZO, 1 ATMAS, Fennek or Marder or Puma).
                                                                          An artillery reconnaissance regiment (Panzerartillerieaufklärungsregiment) with a HQ & support battery, an artillery reconnaissance battery, a drone reconnaissance battery and three armoured artillery batteries (equipped with 27 Panzerhaubitzen 2000, 1 KZO, 3 COBRA, 2 SMA, 4 ATMAS, Fennek or Puma or Marder). Artillery Corps
                                                                          The army air defence corps (Heeresflugabwehrtruppe) is made up of five units:

                                                                          Three light air defence batteries of the 1st Armoured Division, the Special Operations Division (Division Spezielle Operationen) and the Airmobile Operations Division (Division Luftbewegliche Operationen), equipped with 19 Wiesel2-based Ozelot.
                                                                          An air defence regiment (Panzerflugabwehrregiment) of the 1st Armoured Division, equipped with Gepard.
                                                                          An air defence battalion (Panzerflugabwehrbataillon) of the Army Troop Command, equipped with Gepard. Army Air Defence Corps
                                                                          The army air corps (Heeresfliegertruppe) provides helicopter assets to the German Army. These units are mainly organized into regiments. There are three types of helicopter regiments: the attack helicopter regiment (equipped with Bo 105 PAH, to be replaced by the Tiger), the light transport helicopter regiment (equipped with UH-1D, to be replaced by the NH90) and the transport helicopter regiment (equipped with CH-53G). The German Air Force and the German Navy also have helicopter units.
                                                                          A helicopter regiment is normally structured in a HQ squadron, a support squadron, a flying group (Fliegende Gruppe), with three squadrons, and a mechanic group (Luftfahrzeugtechnische Gruppe), with four squadrons. Each regiment is mostly equipped with up to 40 helicopters.

                                                                          Army Aviators Corps
                                                                          Units of the engineer corps (Pioniertruppe) engage in mobility, countermobility, survivability and general engineering operations. They have many faces: the engineers (Pioniere), the armoured engineers (Panzerpioniere), the airborne engineers (Luftlandepioniere), the mountain engineers (Gebirgspioniere) and other units. The engineer troop unit structure becomes larger and more effective in the new army.

                                                                          An armoured engineer battalion (Panzerpionierbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three armoured engineer companies.
                                                                          The mountain engineer battalion consists of a HQ & support company, two mountain engineer companies and a mountain engineer machine company.
                                                                          A heavy engineer battalion consists of a HQ & support company, two amphibious or bridge companies and two engineer machine companies. Engineer Corps
                                                                          The units of the NBC corps (ABC-Abwehrtruppe) are responsible for decontamination of personnel, vehicles and other material. They also search for nuclear, bacterial or chemical sources. These research squads are equipped with the NBC Fox (ABC-Spürpanzer Fuchs), which will be replaced by the MRAV Boxer.

                                                                          NBC Corps
                                                                          Units belonging to the logistics corps (Heereslogistiktruppen) support combat units. The logistics corps is the result of the fusion of the ordnance corps (Instandsetzungstruppe) and the supplies corps (Nachschubtruppe). Logistics units, mostly logistics battalions (Logistikbataillone) have many tasks: transportation, maintenance/repairing of vehicles, weapons and other material, supply of material, cooking meals for the German Army, etc.
                                                                          A typical logistics battalion of the German Army consists of a HQ & support company, two light maintenance companies and two supply/transport companies. (In contrast a logistics battalion of the Joint Support Centre consists of a HQ & support company, two maintenance companies, two supply companies, a transport company and a special supply company.)

                                                                          Logistics Corps

                                                                          Gewehr G36 with retracted bipod

                                                                          Heckler & Koch G365.56 mm x 45 assault rifle replacing the Heckler & Koch G3 as primary weapon
                                                                          Version G36K and G36C for several branches including Special Forces
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MG4—5.56 mm light machine gun, replacing the MG3 in the squad automatic weapon role
                                                                          MG37.62 mm x 51 machine gun
                                                                          G87.62 mm x 51 machine gun, only used by special forces
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MP74.6 mm x 30 submachine gun, replacing the MP2
                                                                          MP29 x 19 mm submachine gun
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MP59 x 19 mm submachine gun, only used by the military police (Feldjäger) and the KSK
                                                                          Heckler & Koch P8—9 x 19 mm pistol
                                                                          G227.62 mm x 66.5B sniper rifle
                                                                          G82—sniper rifle
                                                                          Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3Rocket propelled grenade
                                                                          Raytheon Fliegerfaust 2 (FIM-92 Stinger)infrared homing surface-to-air missile
                                                                          MILAN—anti-tank guided missile system
                                                                          Granatpistole 40mmgrenade launcher
                                                                          HK GMG—grenade autocannon
                                                                          AG36—grenade launcher
                                                                          KM2000—172 mm tantō style blade standard combat knife Standard Light Weapons

                                                                          Fennek (light wheeled reconnaissance vehicle), replacing some Luchs
                                                                          Luchs A2 (wheeled reconnaissance vehicle)
                                                                          Luna X 2000 (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          KZO (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          Aladin (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          MIKADO (mini reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          RASIT (radar system), being phased out
                                                                          BÜR (radar system), replacing RASIT and ABRA Reconnaissance Systems
                                                                          AGF & PzH 2000
                                                                          GTK Boxer
                                                                          Mungo ESK
                                                                          ATF DINGO 2

                                                                          Leopard 2 (Main Battle Tank)

                                                                          • A4, being phased out
                                                                            Marder 1 A3/A5 (infantry fighting vehicle)
                                                                            Puma (IFV) (infantry fighting vehicle), replaces the Marder in the Mechanized Infantry
                                                                            Wiesel 1/2 (light air-transportable tracked multirole vehicle)

                                                                            • as a reconnaissance vehicle for the airborne troops
                                                                              with autocannon 20 mm
                                                                              with TOW
                                                                              with mortar 120 mm
                                                                              as a radar vehicle for the light air defence system (LeFlaSys)
                                                                              as a command vehicle for the LeFlaSys
                                                                              as an engineer reconnaissance vehicle
                                                                              with Stinger equipped for the LeFlaSys
                                                                              as a medical vehicle for the airborne troops
                                                                              M113 A2 (multirole armoured vehicle), being phased out
                                                                              GTK Boxer (multirole armoured vehicle), replaces M113 and Fuchs
                                                                              Jaguar 2 (tank destroyer), being phased out
                                                                              Dingo 1/2 (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              Grizzly (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              AGF Serval
                                                                              YAK (Duro III) (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              Mungo ESK (armoured transport vehicle)
                                                                              Fuchs 1/2 (multirole armoured vehicle)
                                                                              BV 206 S (tracked armoured transport vehicle) Combat vehicles

                                                                              M270 MLRS (227 mm multiple rocket launcher)
                                                                              PzH 2000 (155 mm self-propelled howitzer), replacing M109
                                                                              M109 A3 GE A1 (155 mm self-propelled howitzer), upgraded, being phased out and replaced by PzH 2000
                                                                              ABRA (artillery radar system), being phased out
                                                                              COBRA (artillery radar system)
                                                                              ATMAS (artillery weather measure system)
                                                                              SMA (artillery sound measure system) Artillery

                                                                              Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard 1 A2 (Self propelled anti air gun)
                                                                              ROLAND (Air defence system), phased out
                                                                              LeFlaSys (leichtes Flugabwehrraketensystem), based on Wiesel 2
                                                                              LÜR (radar system), being phased out
                                                                              BÜR (radar system) Air Defence Systems

                                                                              Dachs (tracked engineer tank)
                                                                              Büffel (tracked salvage tank)
                                                                              Biber (bridge layer)
                                                                              Panzerschnellbrücke 2 (bridge layer), replacing the Biber
                                                                              Scorpion (mine system)
                                                                              Keiler (mine breaker)
                                                                              M3 (amphibious vehicle)
                                                                              Medium Girder Bridge (bridge system)
                                                                              Faltfestbrücke (bridge system)
                                                                              Faltschwimmbrücke (bridge system)
                                                                              Pontoon bridge
                                                                              Faltstraßensystem (mobile roadway system) Aircraft inventory

                                                                              SLT 50-3 Elefant (heavy tractor trailer, tank transport)
                                                                              Berge- und Kranfahrzeug, BKF 30.40 (salvage vehicle) Non-combat vehicles

                                                                              Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John The Nemesis of Power: German Army in Politics, 1918-1945 New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company, 2005.

Saturday, September 22, 2007

River Fleet
The River Fleet is the largest of London's subterranean rivers. It formerly flowed on the surface. It rises from two springs on Hampstead Heath and is directed into two reservoirs constructed in the 18th century, Highgate Ponds and Hampstead Ponds. From the ponds the water flows underground for 4 miles to join the River Thames. The higher reaches of this flow were known as the Holbourne (or Oldbourne [1]), whence Holborn derived its name. The water initially flows in two paths before joining up and passing under Kentish Town and King's Cross. King's Cross was originally named Battle Bridge, referring to an ancient bridge over The Fleet where Boudica is said to have fought an important battle against the Romans. The river then runs down Farringdon Road and Farringdon Street, and joins the Thames beneath Blackfriars Bridge.
Its name comes from the Anglo-Saxon Holburna = "hollow stream", referring to its deep valley, and flēot = "estuary." In Anglo-Saxon times, the Fleet served as a dock for shipping.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Fleet was a substantial body of water, joining the Thames through a marshy tidal basin over 100 yards wide at the mouth of the Fleet Valley. A large number of wells were built along its banks, and some on springs (Bagnigge Well, Clerkenwell) were reputed to have healing qualities. As London grew, the river became increasingly a sewer. By the 13th century, it was considered polluted, and the area was given over to poor-quality housing, and, later, prisons (Newgate, Fleet and Ludgate prisons were all built in that area). The flow of the river was greatly reduced by increasing industry.
Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, Christopher Wren proposed widening the river; however, this was rejected. Rather, the Fleet was converted into the New Canal, completed in 1680. Old Seacoal Lane (now just a short alley off Farringdon Street) recalls the wharves that used to line this canal. Unpopular and unused, the canal was filled in from 1737. The river survived slightly longer: The section from Holborn to Fleet Street was channelled below the surface when the canal was filled, with the section to the river covered by 1765. The development of the Regent's Canal and urban growth covered the river in King's Cross and Camden from 1812. The Farringdon Road section was built over again in the 1860s with the construction of the Metropolitan Railway, while the final upper section of the river was covered when Hampstead was expanded in the 1870s.
In the 1970s, the river gave its name to a planned London Underground tube line which was to run alongside the route of the former river but, prior to opening and in honour of the Queen's Silver Jubilee in 1977, the name was changed from Fleet Line to Jubilee Line and the route changed.
The Fleet can be heard through a grating in Ray Street, Farringdon (EC1) [2] in front of the Coach and Horses pub. The position of the river can still be seen in the surrounding streetscape with Ray Street and its continuation Warner Street lying in a valley where the river once flowed. It can also be heard through a grid in the centre of Charterhouse Street where it joins Farringdon Road (on the Smithfield side of the junction).

Friday, September 21, 2007

United States Department of EnergyUnited States Department of Energy
Seal of the Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. Its purview includes the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. DOE also sponsors more basic and applied scientific research than any other US federal agency, most this is funded through its system of United States Department of Energy National Laboratories.
In the United States, all nuclear weapons deployed by the US Department of Defense (DOD) are actually on loan to DOD from the DOE, which has federal responsibility for the design, testing and production of all nuclear weapons. DOE in turn uses contractors to carry out its responsibilities; design of the nuclear components of the weapon - Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, engineering of the weapon systems - Sandia National Laboratory, manufacturing of key components - Los Alamos National Laboratory, testing - Nevada Test Site, and final weapon/warhead assembling/dismantling - Pantex.
Many federal agencies have been established to handle various aspects of U.S. energy policy, dating back to the creation of the Manhattan Project and the subsequent Atomic Energy Commission. The impetus for putting them all under the auspices of a single department was the 1973 energy crisis, in response to which President Jimmy Carter proposed creation of the department. The enabling legislation was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Carter on August 4, 1977. The department began operations on October 1, 1977. The agency is administered by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Germantown, Maryland as well as southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal.

Related legislation

American Solar Challenge
Energy Policy Act of 2005
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Timeline of Chinese espionage against the U.S.