Sunday, September 23, 2007

The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer, [IPA: heɐ] listen ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr ("Federal Defence Forces") of the Federal Republic of Germany. Traditionally, the German military forces have been composed of the Army, the Navy, and after the First World War, the Air Force. The Heer was re-formed in the 1950s as the West German Army as part of the Bundeswehr. In October 1990, upon the reunification of Germany, the East German army, the National People's Army (NVA), was integrated into the now unified force.
The German word Heer means simply "army". The term is not restricted to any particular country, so "das britische Heer" would mean "the British army".

Since Germany first became a modern unified state in 1871, previous names of German unified military forces have included:

1919–1935 Reichswehr ("Empire Defence" and "Empire Defence Force") consisting of the Reichsheer (Army) and the Reichsmarine (Navy);
1935–1945 Wehrmacht ("Defence Force") consisting of the Wehrmacht Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), and Luftwaffe (Air Force);
West Germany

  • 1955–October 1990 Bundeswehr ("Federal Defence Forces") (West Germany) consisting of the Heer, Bundesmarine (Federal Navy) and Luftwaffe;
    East Germany

    • 1956–October 1990 Nationale Volksarmee ("National People's Army"), consisting of the Landstreitkräfte (Land Forces), Grenztruppen der DDR (Border Troops of the GDR), Luftstreitkräfte / Luftverteidigung (Air Forces / Air Defence) and the Volksmarine (People's Navy)
      October 1990–present Bundeswehr: Deutsches Heer, Deutsche Marine and Deutsche Luftwaffe. Overview

      Main article: German Army (German Empire) Pre-1914
      The German army that fought in World War I was not in fact a single, unitary army. The four German kingdoms that existed prior to the unification of Germany in January 1871, Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony and Württemberg, each retained their own army upon unification. Prussia had the largest army of the four. After the unification and the formation of the German Empire, the Prussian army became the nucleus of the Army of the German Empire (Deutsches Reichsheer). By 1914 the German army fielded 50 active divisions and by 1918 251 divisions had been created.

      German Army World War I 1914–1918

      Main article: ReichswehrGerman Army Reichswehr 1918–1935

      Main article: Wehrmacht Wehrmacht 1935–1945
      The Bundeswehr Heer was founded in 1955 as the army of West Germany. After 1990, it absorbed the army of socialist East Germany which was called the Landstreitkräfte (terrestrial armed forces), a part of Nationale Volksarmee.

      Current Army
      The German Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff (Inspekteur des Heeres) in the Federal Ministry of Defence in Berlin and Bonn. The major commands are the German Army Command in Koblenz and the German Army Office in Cologne.

      The German Army Command in Koblenz (Heeresführungskommando) leads all combat units (three armoured/mechanized divisions, two special divisions and one independent brigade). It is commanded by a Lieutenant General.
      (Current Structure)

      Army Command

      • HQ Company
        Franco-German Brigade

        • HQ Company Flag of FranceFlag of Germany
          3ème Régiment de Hussards Flag of France
          Light Infantry Battalion 292 Flag of Germany
          110ème Régiment d'Infanterie Flag of France
          Mixed Artillery Battalion 295 Flag of Germany
          Armoured Engineer Company 550 Flag of Germany
          Support Battalion Flag of FranceFlag of Germany
          Division Intervention Forces/ 1st Armoured Division

          • HQ Company
            Army Band 1
            Artillery Regiment 100

            • Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 131
              Rocket Artillery Battalion 132
              Engineer Regiment 1

              • Heavy Engineer Battalion 130
                Armoured Engineer Battalion 1
                Air Defence Regiment 6
                Signal Regiment 1
                Reconnaissance Battalion 3
                NBC Battalion 7
                Logistics Battalion 3
                Light NBC Company 610
                Light Air Defence Battery 610
                Mechanized Infantry Brigade 1 (To be disbanded within 2007)

                • HQ Company
                  Mechanized Infantry Battalion 421 (To be disbanded July 1st, 2007)
                  Armoured Brigade 9 (Training)

                  • HQ Company
                    Armoured Battalion 33
                    Armoured Battalion 93
                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 92
                    Armoured Artillery Battalion 325
                    Armoured Reconnaissance Company 90
                    Armoured Engineer Company 90
                    Logistics Battalion 141
                    Armoured Brigade 21

                    • HQ Company
                      Armoured Battalion 203
                      Mechanized Infantry Battalion 212
                      Armoured Artillery Battalion 215
                      Armoured Reconnaissance Company 210
                      Armoured Engineer Company 200
                      Logistics Battalion 7
                      10th Armoured Division

                      • HQ Company
                        Army Band 2
                        Mechanized Infantry Brigade 30
                        HQ Company

                        • Mechanized Infantry Battalion 294
                          Armoured Artillery Battalion 345
                          Armoured Brigade 12

                          • HQ Company
                            Armoured Battalion 104
                            Mechanized Infantry Battalion 112
                            Mechanized Infantry Battalion 122
                            Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 8
                            Engineer Battalion 4
                            Signal Battalion 4
                            Logistics Battalion 4
                            Mountain Brigade 23

                            • HQ Company
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 231
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 232
                              Mountain Infantry Battalion 233
                              Mountain Reconnaissance Battalion 230
                              Mountain Engineer Battalion 8
                              Mountain Signal Battalion 210
                              Mountain Logistic Battalion 8
                              13th Mechanized Infantry Division

                              • HQ Company
                                Army Band 10
                                Reserve Engineer Bridge Battalion 270
                                Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 13
                                Mechanized Infantry Brigade 37

                                • HQ Company
                                  Armoured Battalion 303
                                  Light Infantry Battalion 371
                                  Mechanized Infantry Battalion 393
                                  Mountain Infantry Battalion 571
                                  Armoured Reconnaissance Battalion 13
                                  Armoured Engineer Battalion 701
                                  Signal Battalion 701
                                  Logistics Battalion 131
                                  Mechanized Infantry Brigade 41

                                  • HQ Company
                                    Armoured Battalion 413
                                    Armoured Engineer Battalion 803
                                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 401
                                    Mechanized Infantry Battalion 411
                                    Logistics Battalion 142
                                    14th Mechanized Infantry Division (To be disbanded 2008)

                                    • HQ Company
                                      Army Band 14
                                      Amoured Brigade 18

                                      • HQ Company
                                        Armoured Artillery Battalion 515
                                        Mechanized Infantry Battalion 182
                                        Signal Battalion 610
                                        Signal Battalion 801
                                        Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 6
                                        Special Operations Division

                                        • HQ Company
                                          Army Band 300
                                          Airborne Signal Battalion
                                          Long Range Reconnaissance Company 200
                                          Light Air Defence Battery 100
                                          Special Forces Command
                                          Airborne Brigade 26

                                          • HQ Company
                                            Paratrooper Battalion 261
                                            Paratrooper Battalion 263
                                            Airborne Reconnaissance Company 260
                                            Airborne Engineer Company 260
                                            Airborne Support Battalion 262
                                            Airborne Brigade 31

                                            • HQ Company
                                              Paratrooper Battalion 313
                                              Paratrooper Battalion 373
                                              Airborne Reconnaissance Company 310
                                              Airborne Engineer Company 270
                                              Airborne Support Battalion 272
                                              Airmobile Operations Division

                                              • HQ Company
                                                Army Band 12
                                                Signal Battalion
                                                Aviation Medium Transport Regiment 15
                                                Aviation Medium Transport Regiment 25
                                                Aviation Transport Regiment 30
                                                Airmobile Brigade 1

                                                • HQ Company
                                                  Aviation Reconnaissance Squadron 100
                                                  Aviation Support Squadron 1
                                                  Aviation Mechanic Squadron 1
                                                  Light Infantry Regiment 1
                                                  Attack Helicopter Regiment 26
                                                  Attack Helicopter Regiment 36
                                                  Aviation Transport Regiment 10
                                                  Aviation Brigade 3

                                                  • HQ Company
                                                    Amoured Brigade 14

                                                    • HQ Company
                                                      Signal Battalion 820
                                                      Amoured Battalion 64
                                                      Amoured Engineer Company 200
                                                      Army Troops Command

                                                      • HQ Company
                                                        Army Band 300
                                                        NBC Brigade 100

                                                        • HQ Company
                                                          NBC Regiment 750
                                                          NBC Battalion 610
                                                          NBC Battalion 805
                                                          Artillery Brigade 100

                                                          • HQ Company
                                                            Rocket Artillery Battalion 132
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 71
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 121
                                                            Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion 131
                                                            Field Signal Intelligence Centre of the Army
                                                            Air Defence Brigade 100

                                                            • HQ Company
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 6
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 12
                                                              Air Defence Battalion 131
                                                              Engineer Brigade 100

                                                              • HQ Company
                                                                Heavy Engineer Battalion 130
                                                                Engineer Battalion 140
                                                                Armoured Enginer Battalion 1
                                                                Light NBC Company 120
                                                                Intervention Forces Operative Guidance Command
                                                                I. German/Dutch Corps

                                                                • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                  Signal Battalion (German shares)
                                                                  HQ Support Battalion (German shares)

                                                                  • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                    Corps Support Brigade

                                                                    • Signal Battalion (German shares)
                                                                      HQ Support Battalion (German shares)
                                                                      Multinational Corps North East

                                                                      • HQ Company (German shares)
                                                                        Signal Battalion (German shares) German Army Command
                                                                        The German Army Office in Cologne is responsible for the administration, education, training and logistics of the German Army. It is commanded by a lieutenant general or a major general.
                                                                        Schools, training centres and miscellaneous offices:

                                                                        Airborne Operations and Air Transport School (Luftlande- und Lufttransportschule) in Altenstadt (Schongau)
                                                                        Armoured Corps School (Panzertruppenschule) in Munster, Lower Saxony
                                                                        Army Air Defence School (Heeresflugabwehrschule) in Rendsburg
                                                                        Army Aviators School (Heeresfliegerwaffenschule) in Bückeburg
                                                                        Army Combat Simulation Centre (Gefechtssimulationszentrum des Heeres) in Wildflecken
                                                                        Army Combat Training Centre (Gefechtsübungszentrum des Heeres) in Letzlingen
                                                                        Army Logistics Centre (Logistikzentrum des Heeres) in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler
                                                                        Army NCO Academy (Unteroffizierschule des Heeres) in Münster, Delitzsch, and Weiden in der Oberpfalz
                                                                        Army Officers' School (Offizierschule des Heeres) in Dresden
                                                                        Army Tactics Centre (Taktikzentrum des Heeres) in Dresden
                                                                        Army Technical School (Technische Schule des Heeres und Fachschule des Heeres für Technik) in Aachen
                                                                        Artillery School (Artillerieschule) in Idar-Oberstein
                                                                        Infantry School (Infanterieschule) in Hammelburg
                                                                        Mountain and Winter Combat School (Gebirgs- und Winterkampfschule) in Mittenwald
                                                                        NBC Defence School (ABC- und Selbstschutzschule) in Sonthofen
                                                                        Sappers' School and Army Technical School for Structural Engineering (Pionierschule und Fachschule des Heeres für Bautechnik) in Munich
                                                                        International Special Training Center (Ausbildungszentrum Spezielle Operationen) in Pfullendorf German Army Office (Heeresamt)
                                                                        In the German Army, unlike in the armies of its neighbours (France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark), there are no individual regiments. Instead, individual battalions of infantry, armour, artillery etc are given unique numbers.
                                                                        The German Army distinguishes 11 different branches of service or corps, known as Truppengattungen. Each corps is responsible for education and training of its units, mostly by its own schools or training centres.

                                                                        Units of the signal corps (Fernmeldetruppe) are responsible for communication, strategic reconnaissance and electronic warfare. Most units of the signal corps belong to the Joint Support Centre (Streitkräftebasis).

                                                                        Signal Corps
                                                                        During Army Transformation, the armoured reconnaissance corps (Panzeraufklärungstruppe) was given the new name Heeresaufklärungstruppe. The reason is that the original task of the armoured reconnaissance corps has changed. Today they need artillery drones or specialists from military intelligence units.
                                                                        The army reconnaissance corps is equipped with Fennek, Luchs, Wiesel 1, the drone reconnaissance system KZO, ALADIN and LunaX, the radar system BÜR (Bodenüberwachungradar), Fuchs and Dingo. A typical reconnaissance battalion (Aufklärungsbataillon) is structured in a HQ & support company, two or three armoured reconnaissance companies, a drone reconnaissance company and a separate military intelligence platoon.

                                                                        Army Reconnaissance Corps
                                                                        The armoured corps (Panzertruppen) are armoured units (Panzertruppe), equipped with main battle tanks, and mechanized infantry units (Panzergrenadiertruppe) equipped with IFVs.
                                                                        A typical armoured battalion (Panzerbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three tank companies (equipped with 42 MBTs). The new mechanized battalion (Panzergrenadierbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three mechanized companies (equipped with up to 40 Marder 1 A5 or Puma). Formerly there was a fifth company with mortars or/and anti-tank units.

                                                                        Armoured Corps
                                                                        Within the German Army, there are three types of infantry:
                                                                        A typical infantry battalion is structured in a HQ & support company, three light infantry companies and an indirect fire support company ("The Heavy Company"). These company consists of one anti-tank platoons (equipped with Wiesel 1, TOW), three machine gun platoons (equipped with Wiesel 1, machine gun 20 mm) and two mortar platoons (today equipped with mortar 120 mm on M113, in future on Wiesel 2). Then you find specialized Infantry Platoons like a mountain ranger platoon (Hochgebirgszug) of the mountain infantry, a pathfinder platoon (Fallschirmspezialzug) of the paratroops or K9 dog platoon (Diensthundezug) are found in the HQ & support company (Stabs- und Versorgungskompanie).

                                                                        Jäger—Light Infantry / Rangers
                                                                        Gebirgsjäger—Mountain Infantry
                                                                        Fallschirmjäger—Airborne troops Infantry
                                                                        Through Army Transformation the Special Operations Division (DSO) was formed. Soldiers of the Special Forces Command (Kommando Spezialkräfte), formerly belonging to the infantry, today have their own division.

                                                                        Special Forces
                                                                        The majority of artillery corps (Artillerietruppe) within the German Army are Panzerartillerie (armoured artillery). After Army Transformation the German Army will only have six artillery units. The German Army no longer requires the same amount of artillery for its peacekeeping missions as it did during the Cold War, so the new artillery corps is relatively smaller, however the units are larger and stronger.

                                                                        Two armoured artillery battalions (Panzerartilleriebataillon) in the two brigades of the 1st Armoured Division with a HQ & support battery and three armoured artillery batteries (equipped with 27 Panzerhaubitze 2000).
                                                                        An artillery regiment with HQ Battery in the divisional troops of the 1st Armoured Division with:

                                                                        • An artillery reconnaissance battalion (Panzerartillerieaufklärungsbataillon) with a HQ & support battery, an artillery reconnaissance battery, a drone reconnaissance battery and two armoured artillery batteries (equipped with Fennek or Marder or Puma, KZO, 2 COBRA, 1 SMA, 2 ATMAS, 18 Panzerhaubitze 2000).
                                                                          An artillery missile battalion (Raketenartilleriebataillon) with a HQ & support battery and four artillery missile batteries (equipped with 32 MLRS).
                                                                          A mixed artillery battalion (gemischtes Artilleriebataillon) of the Franco-German-Brigade with a HQ & support battery with artillery reconnaissance elements, two armoured artillery batteries and an artillery missile battery (equipped with 18 Panzerhaubitzen 2000, 10 MLRS, 1 KZO, 1 ATMAS, Fennek or Marder or Puma).
                                                                          An artillery reconnaissance regiment (Panzerartillerieaufklärungsregiment) with a HQ & support battery, an artillery reconnaissance battery, a drone reconnaissance battery and three armoured artillery batteries (equipped with 27 Panzerhaubitzen 2000, 1 KZO, 3 COBRA, 2 SMA, 4 ATMAS, Fennek or Puma or Marder). Artillery Corps
                                                                          The army air defence corps (Heeresflugabwehrtruppe) is made up of five units:

                                                                          Three light air defence batteries of the 1st Armoured Division, the Special Operations Division (Division Spezielle Operationen) and the Airmobile Operations Division (Division Luftbewegliche Operationen), equipped with 19 Wiesel2-based Ozelot.
                                                                          An air defence regiment (Panzerflugabwehrregiment) of the 1st Armoured Division, equipped with Gepard.
                                                                          An air defence battalion (Panzerflugabwehrbataillon) of the Army Troop Command, equipped with Gepard. Army Air Defence Corps
                                                                          The army air corps (Heeresfliegertruppe) provides helicopter assets to the German Army. These units are mainly organized into regiments. There are three types of helicopter regiments: the attack helicopter regiment (equipped with Bo 105 PAH, to be replaced by the Tiger), the light transport helicopter regiment (equipped with UH-1D, to be replaced by the NH90) and the transport helicopter regiment (equipped with CH-53G). The German Air Force and the German Navy also have helicopter units.
                                                                          A helicopter regiment is normally structured in a HQ squadron, a support squadron, a flying group (Fliegende Gruppe), with three squadrons, and a mechanic group (Luftfahrzeugtechnische Gruppe), with four squadrons. Each regiment is mostly equipped with up to 40 helicopters.

                                                                          Army Aviators Corps
                                                                          Units of the engineer corps (Pioniertruppe) engage in mobility, countermobility, survivability and general engineering operations. They have many faces: the engineers (Pioniere), the armoured engineers (Panzerpioniere), the airborne engineers (Luftlandepioniere), the mountain engineers (Gebirgspioniere) and other units. The engineer troop unit structure becomes larger and more effective in the new army.

                                                                          An armoured engineer battalion (Panzerpionierbataillon) consists of a HQ & support company and three armoured engineer companies.
                                                                          The mountain engineer battalion consists of a HQ & support company, two mountain engineer companies and a mountain engineer machine company.
                                                                          A heavy engineer battalion consists of a HQ & support company, two amphibious or bridge companies and two engineer machine companies. Engineer Corps
                                                                          The units of the NBC corps (ABC-Abwehrtruppe) are responsible for decontamination of personnel, vehicles and other material. They also search for nuclear, bacterial or chemical sources. These research squads are equipped with the NBC Fox (ABC-Spürpanzer Fuchs), which will be replaced by the MRAV Boxer.

                                                                          NBC Corps
                                                                          Units belonging to the logistics corps (Heereslogistiktruppen) support combat units. The logistics corps is the result of the fusion of the ordnance corps (Instandsetzungstruppe) and the supplies corps (Nachschubtruppe). Logistics units, mostly logistics battalions (Logistikbataillone) have many tasks: transportation, maintenance/repairing of vehicles, weapons and other material, supply of material, cooking meals for the German Army, etc.
                                                                          A typical logistics battalion of the German Army consists of a HQ & support company, two light maintenance companies and two supply/transport companies. (In contrast a logistics battalion of the Joint Support Centre consists of a HQ & support company, two maintenance companies, two supply companies, a transport company and a special supply company.)

                                                                          Logistics Corps

                                                                          Gewehr G36 with retracted bipod

                                                                          Heckler & Koch G365.56 mm x 45 assault rifle replacing the Heckler & Koch G3 as primary weapon
                                                                          Version G36K and G36C for several branches including Special Forces
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MG4—5.56 mm light machine gun, replacing the MG3 in the squad automatic weapon role
                                                                          MG37.62 mm x 51 machine gun
                                                                          G87.62 mm x 51 machine gun, only used by special forces
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MP74.6 mm x 30 submachine gun, replacing the MP2
                                                                          MP29 x 19 mm submachine gun
                                                                          Heckler & Koch MP59 x 19 mm submachine gun, only used by the military police (Feldjäger) and the KSK
                                                                          Heckler & Koch P8—9 x 19 mm pistol
                                                                          G227.62 mm x 66.5B sniper rifle
                                                                          G82—sniper rifle
                                                                          Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3Rocket propelled grenade
                                                                          Raytheon Fliegerfaust 2 (FIM-92 Stinger)infrared homing surface-to-air missile
                                                                          MILAN—anti-tank guided missile system
                                                                          Granatpistole 40mmgrenade launcher
                                                                          HK GMG—grenade autocannon
                                                                          AG36—grenade launcher
                                                                          KM2000—172 mm tantō style blade standard combat knife Standard Light Weapons

                                                                          Fennek (light wheeled reconnaissance vehicle), replacing some Luchs
                                                                          Luchs A2 (wheeled reconnaissance vehicle)
                                                                          Luna X 2000 (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          KZO (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          Aladin (reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          MIKADO (mini reconnaissance drone system)
                                                                          RASIT (radar system), being phased out
                                                                          BÜR (radar system), replacing RASIT and ABRA Reconnaissance Systems
                                                                          AGF & PzH 2000
                                                                          GTK Boxer
                                                                          Mungo ESK
                                                                          ATF DINGO 2

                                                                          Leopard 2 (Main Battle Tank)

                                                                          • A4, being phased out
                                                                            Marder 1 A3/A5 (infantry fighting vehicle)
                                                                            Puma (IFV) (infantry fighting vehicle), replaces the Marder in the Mechanized Infantry
                                                                            Wiesel 1/2 (light air-transportable tracked multirole vehicle)

                                                                            • as a reconnaissance vehicle for the airborne troops
                                                                              with autocannon 20 mm
                                                                              with TOW
                                                                              with mortar 120 mm
                                                                              as a radar vehicle for the light air defence system (LeFlaSys)
                                                                              as a command vehicle for the LeFlaSys
                                                                              as an engineer reconnaissance vehicle
                                                                              with Stinger equipped for the LeFlaSys
                                                                              as a medical vehicle for the airborne troops
                                                                              M113 A2 (multirole armoured vehicle), being phased out
                                                                              GTK Boxer (multirole armoured vehicle), replaces M113 and Fuchs
                                                                              Jaguar 2 (tank destroyer), being phased out
                                                                              Dingo 1/2 (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              Grizzly (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              AGF Serval
                                                                              YAK (Duro III) (armoured wheeled vehicle)
                                                                              Mungo ESK (armoured transport vehicle)
                                                                              Fuchs 1/2 (multirole armoured vehicle)
                                                                              BV 206 S (tracked armoured transport vehicle) Combat vehicles

                                                                              M270 MLRS (227 mm multiple rocket launcher)
                                                                              PzH 2000 (155 mm self-propelled howitzer), replacing M109
                                                                              M109 A3 GE A1 (155 mm self-propelled howitzer), upgraded, being phased out and replaced by PzH 2000
                                                                              ABRA (artillery radar system), being phased out
                                                                              COBRA (artillery radar system)
                                                                              ATMAS (artillery weather measure system)
                                                                              SMA (artillery sound measure system) Artillery

                                                                              Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard 1 A2 (Self propelled anti air gun)
                                                                              ROLAND (Air defence system), phased out
                                                                              LeFlaSys (leichtes Flugabwehrraketensystem), based on Wiesel 2
                                                                              LÜR (radar system), being phased out
                                                                              BÜR (radar system) Air Defence Systems

                                                                              Dachs (tracked engineer tank)
                                                                              Büffel (tracked salvage tank)
                                                                              Biber (bridge layer)
                                                                              Panzerschnellbrücke 2 (bridge layer), replacing the Biber
                                                                              Scorpion (mine system)
                                                                              Keiler (mine breaker)
                                                                              M3 (amphibious vehicle)
                                                                              Medium Girder Bridge (bridge system)
                                                                              Faltfestbrücke (bridge system)
                                                                              Faltschwimmbrücke (bridge system)
                                                                              Pontoon bridge
                                                                              Faltstraßensystem (mobile roadway system) Aircraft inventory

                                                                              SLT 50-3 Elefant (heavy tractor trailer, tank transport)
                                                                              Berge- und Kranfahrzeug, BKF 30.40 (salvage vehicle) Non-combat vehicles

                                                                              Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John The Nemesis of Power: German Army in Politics, 1918-1945 New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company, 2005.

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